Flora & Fauna

Location: Bandhavgarh

Flora & Fauna



Bandhavgarh is very rich in  floral diversity due to combination of landforms and soil types, and the moist  character of the region. Forests types of Bandhavgarh can be identified as Moist Peninsular  Sal Forest  and Southern tropical Moist   Mixed Deciduous   Forest and Southern  Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest. The reserve has over 600 species of  flowering plants, 50 species of aquatic plants and 18 species of rare plants.Bandhavgarh National Parks has  variety of tree that one may comes across during visit. Some of them are as  follows:

S. No.

Tree Name

Short Description


Sal Tree

It is the most abundant timber tree of Bandhavgarh forest. Sal is a  moderate slow growing tree and found in abundance in forest of Bandhavgarh.    Its wood is termite resistant and useful in making of furnitures, railway    sleepers etc. Its stem exudes a gum (viscous paste) used in marine yards for    caulking boats, shoe polish etc. Its leafless period is short, virtually a    evergreen tree. Butter extracted from its seed is used in making    chocolates.


Saj Tree

The genus Terminalia Linn includes 200 species of tree and shrubs.  They are source of non-wood products like gums, oil, drug preparation etc. It    is called crocodile bark tree due to its unique patterns on the bark. Its    long and clear bole makes it a good timber value.


Mahua/Indian Butter Tree

Indian butter tree is very popular among villagers of Central India. It is found in majority of areas of    Madhya Pradesh. Oil extracted from its seed used as edible oil and in soap    industry. Its fleshy flowers are rich source of Vitamin, calcium, sugar source to birds and animals. Its flowers are used in making strong alcoholic brew consumed by local villagers.


Flame of Forest or Palash Tree

It is also called Palash Tree. Its bright orange flowers appears in    month of February  -  March. During this period it changes the view of    forest. Its average height is 6-12 meter. Flower is boiled to extract colour    for dye, ink etc. It is very common tree in Bandhavgarh and its near-by    areas. Local people call it “Choola”. It is good host plant for lac producing    insects.



It is popularly known as Indian Kino Tree. It is a medium to large in    height and have medicinal value in Ayurveda. It is used for treatment of    diabetes, inflammation etc.


Bel or Stone Apple

Bel is also known by the name of “stone apple”. Its outer crust is very hard thus Stone word is associated with it. Its juice is used in    making refreshing drinks and is considered good for stomach. It is used as a    ayurvedic remedy for  ailments as diarrhea, dysentery, dryness of eye, constipation etc.



Banyan or Indian Banyan can grow into a giant tree covering several    hectares. We can find this tree in Bandhavgarh, whose figs are eaten by birds    and mammals. Seed of fig are dispersed by birds like Indian Mynas. Studies    have shown that seeds passed through digestive system of bird are more likely    to germinate.



It is a evergreen beautiful tree found in Bandhavgarh. Jamun fruit    appears in month of May and June. On first appearance of fruit is in green colour then its changes into pink and later become black on fully ripe stage.  Fruit is good for digestive system and other parts of tree also have  significant medicinal value. Wild animals like langur, fruit bat, chital relish them. Honey produced from its flower has great medicinal value.



Harra or Harad tree has great medicinal value in ayurveda. It is    moderate to large tree with rounded crown, yellowish-white flowers, spreading    branches. Its fruit is used to cure many common disorders like piles,    vomiting, throat problem, bleeding disorder, hyperacidity, constipation, hiccough, arthritis etc. It is one of the prominent content of famous Indian household    appetizer called Trifala/triphala churan



It is a large tree with leaves 10 to 25cm. long, clustered near ends    of branches, small pale green foul-smelling flowers in simple spikes. Healing    power of dried Bahera fruit is well known in India. Bahera is also one of the    three constituents of Triphala. It is also used during cough, stomach disorder, sore throat, constipation, eye disorder, intestinal worms etc.


Indian gooseberry

Indian gooseberry or Amla is known for edible spherical fruit. Tree is    medium sized tree of 7 to 17 mtr. Height. It grows relatively slowly. Fruit    is light green color and have great medicinal value. If we observe fruit    carefully we can notice six divisions in its body. Amla is another important    ingredient of Indian Triphala/Trifala.



Adina cordifolia is found in forest area of Bandhavgarh. Local people    know it by the name of Kadam or Haldu. It blossoms during winter season. Its    flowers are usually yellow with some shade of pink colour. Bark of tree have    been used as antiseptic.



Thwar is a flowering plant, found in Bandhavgarh National Park.



Bombax ceiba is commonly known as cotton tree. Its red flowers with five petals in spring  gives it beautiful look. Its trunk is straight, tall and have spikes.



Pipal (peepal or pepal tree) is a sacred tree for Hindus and   Buddhists. Specialty of this tree is that it produces oxygen in day time as    well as in night also. It is also known as Bodhi Tree as lord Buddha attained    enlightenment under a papal tree. It belongs to the Ficus species and have great ecological value. They provide feeding, roosting and nesting sites   for birds and mammals.



Madhya Pradesh is the largest Tendu leaves producer state of India.    Diospyros melanoxylon leaf is the most suitable wrapper as it can be rolled  easily and available in mass. Its leaves are widely used in Indian Bidis. It is widely available in forest of Bandhavgarh. Many villagers use to enter village to collect its leaves.



Buchanania lanzan is from family of Anacardium and its common name is    Charoli or Chironji. It is a medium sized tree with tiny, hard shelled    fruits. Kernel inside the shell is used for garnishing sweets in India.



Its telugu name is Chennangi. It is very common tree in both moist  and dry forest areas. Its speciality is light demander, drought resistant,  good coppicer and fire-resistant.Its fruits ripes in December to February. It can be seen in both moist and dry area of Bandhavgarh forest.



It is a flowering plant. Its furits called “Phalsa” and are delicious in    taste and liked by languars and deers of Bandhavgarh national park.



It is found in Central India as well as south-west part of India.    Zizyphus is a small tree in the buckthorn family Rhamnaceae. Its leaves are    are alternate, entire with three prominent basal veins, size 2-8 cm. long. It    is found in warm temperature and subtrophical regions of forested areas of Bandhavgarh  Tiger Reserve.



It is a small tree of rigid shrub. It have long spines with strong    horizontal leaves of 1-2 inches long. Plant is covered with white flowers    turning yellow over a few days. It attracts maximum number of butterflies and    daytime moth like clearwing hawk moth. Its seeds have medicinal properties    and often used as fish poison.



It is a native Indian tree with height of 20-30 mtr. tall. Its twigs    are solid and densely hairy. It is found in both primary and secondary    forests of Bandhavgarh. Its seed capsule is the source of yellow dye.



It is commonly known as Slow Match Tree in English. It falls under    deciduous tree category whose leaves fall seasonly. Its leaves turn red in    winters and can grow up to 18 mtr.high. Its flowers are yellow or white in    colour and produce like green berries. Its bark has medicinal value of curing    common cold and coughs.


Sundew (Drossera indica)

Sundrew is an insectivore plant. It has a profusion of small hair that    secretes a droplet of sticky material which stucks the insect sitting on it.    When prey was caught, plant curls around the insect and digest its protein    content. It usually grow in poor nutrient soils. The Shera Dadra meadow of    Bandhavgarh reserve harbours this beautiful plant.



It is known for its medicinal value and widely used by Ayurvedic    physicians. It is known for its curative properties in hypertension, heart    problem etc. Other names of it are Koha, Kahu, Arjan etc. It is large size    deciduous tree of height approx. 50 -  90 feet. It is evergreen tree with    yellow flowers and conical leaves. Its flowers can be seen in the month of    March to June.



It is a medium high tree with average height of 12 mtr. Cordia    dichotoma has known for medicinal value. It is useful in disease of cough,    chest, colic paint etc. Its fruits, kernel, mucilage and barks are useful    portions of tree.



Bamboo is another most commonly seen tree in Forests of Bandhavgarh.  It belongs to grass family. Bamboo is a tree that flowers gregariously only    once in 30 to 45 years. Last gregarious flowering occurred in Bandhavgarh    forest during 1984-85. Birds and animals feed on it as bamboo is in abundant    and nutritious too. Two main species of bamboo founds in Bandhavgarh:    Dendrocalamus strictus and Bamboosa arundinacea.



Ber is also known by the name of Indian jujube, Chinese Apple, Boroi.    Its tree is found widely in forest area of Bandhavgarh. Zizyphus    mauritiana is a trophical fruit tree. Its fruit is good source of ”vitamin C” presented to god in Hindus and considered sacred. Tree is of medium height i.e, of 6-14 mtr. High with thorns in branches. Its leaves are about    3-8 cm long and thick.



Dhaora is a small medium sized tree of 20-35 mtr. high.  It is considered as one of the most useful    tree in India.    It is a good source of gum which is used for calico printing. It is found in    semi evergreen forest area. It is leaf-less in the month of February to May    and followers in the months of June to September. Fruit is available in the    months of December to March.



Its common name is White Fig. Its fruit is edible just like many other    figs and local villagers of Bandhavgarh consumes it in their food habit.



Mango is very famous fruit of India. Mango tree can be widely    seen in Central India and other parts of India. Its fruit is available in    summer season i.e. in the months of May, June, July. It is considered as king    of all fruits in India.    It is favorite fruits of local tribal people close to Bandhavgarh National Park.    Mango can be consumed in both raw and ripe form.



It is a medium to large sized tree. Its height is up to 10 - 20 mtr.    High with pointed thorns in trunk area. Its bark is dark brown in colour and    roughly cracked.

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